Trying F#

As part of my ongoing interest in functional programming languages, I have decided to try F#. I have been looking at the Try F# page:

http://www.tryfsharp.org/

This provides an online REPL environment for exploring the language. I have a number of students at school who are exploring JavaScript and Python as first languages through Code Academy. I thought it would be a useful experiment to try this sort of educational activity with an unfamiliar language myself.

At first glance, I quite like the learning experience of reading through explanations and running some code, although it’s not as much fun as trying to make something yourself. In order to consolidate my learning, I tried to solve the first of the problems in Project Euler, which is to find the sum of the natural numbers less than 1000 that are multiples of 3 or 4. (I have already done this in Haskell).

I came up with this:

```[0..999]
|> List.filter (fun x -> x % 3 = 0 || x % 5 = 0)
|> List.sum
```

Decimal to Binary

In order to prepare for teaching computing, I’ve been reading Introduction to Computing by David Evans.

In the first chapter there is an excellent explanation of binary numbers using binary search trees. You can build a bitstring for the binary representation of a number by starting at the root (highest node on the tree) and comparing the number to the midpoints of a range of numbers that you are searching. If you answer a question with “yes” append “1” to your bitstring, otherwise append “0”.

The number 6 would be “Yes”, “Yes”, “No” or 110.

I decided to implement the logic of this binary tree in Java.

```private static String decimalToBinary(int input) {
if (input  7) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException();
}

StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();

if (input >= 4) {
result.append('1');
if (input >= 6) {
result.append('1');
if (input == 7) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input == 5) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input >= 2) {
result.append('1');
if (input == 3) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input == 1) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
}
}

return result.toString();
}
```

This works for converting decimal numbers to binary strings. I think that writing a program like this might work as an exercise for secondary school students for learning about conditional statements in programming and binary numbers.

However, the range of inputs is severely limited (0 to 7 inclusive). I wrote another method and a recursive helper method that can take arbitrary non-negative decimals in the range of Java ints and return the corresponding binary number:

```private static String decimalToBinaryRecursive(int input) {
if (input = midpoint) {
result.append('1');
return decimalToBinaryRecursiveHelper(input, midpoint, Math.abs(delta) / 2, result);
} else {
result.append('0');
return decimalToBinaryRecursiveHelper(input, midpoint, Math.abs(delta) / -2, result);
}
}
```

The recursive method is considerably more complex and would be much harder for a secondary school student to write. The mathematics might be unfamiliar for most secondary school students, particularly the code to do with logarithms. You could simplify the mathematics of that code with a while loop that compared increasing powers of 2 to the input. It might be a possible extension task for a gifted and talented student. It could also be a task for a lesson on recursive methods.

I can see that teaching computing will present challenges. There are an enormous number of toy programs that we can get students to create in order to learn about programming. However, in order to extend any of these tasks to make them more practical and interesting, it is very easy to set challenges that are rely on outside skills, knowledge and understanding that many secondary school students do not have.

The whole program with a main method for testing looks like this:

```package decimaltobinary;

/**
* @author Robert Impey
*/
public class DecimalToBinary {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Simple Approach");
for (int i = 0; i <= 7; i++) {
System.out.printf("%d\t%s\n", i, decimalToBinary(i));
}

System.out.println("Recursive Approach");
int bits = 8;
for (int i = 0; i <= Math.pow(2, bits) - 1; i++) {
System.out.printf("%d\t%s\n", i, decimalToBinaryRecursive(i));
}
}

private static String decimalToBinary(int input) {
if (input  7) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException();
}

StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();

if (input >= 4) {
result.append('1');
if (input >= 6) {
result.append('1');
if (input == 7) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input == 5) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input >= 2) {
result.append('1');
if (input == 3) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
} else {
result.append('0');
if (input == 1) {
result.append('1');
} else {
result.append('0');
}
}
}

return result.toString();
}

private static String decimalToBinaryRecursive(int input) {
if (input = midpoint) {
result.append('1');
return decimalToBinaryRecursiveHelper(input, midpoint, Math.abs(delta) / 2, result);
} else {
result.append('0');
return decimalToBinaryRecursiveHelper(input, midpoint, Math.abs(delta) / -2, result);
}
}
}
```

This post contains content that was released with the following license:
and is published with the same license.

GHCN Monthly and MS Access

For some of the last few evenings, I have been learning about MS Access’s data import functionality in order to interrogate the data of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly dataset. This dataset holds records of temperature readings dating back to the beginning of the eighteenth century from more than seven thousand stations around the globe.

GHCN Monthly

The data are in text files with a fixed width format. It’s very straightforward to set up the import format (although there are many columns!) and save the import specification so that future datasets can be imported as they are released with ease. The largest data files have almost half a million rows, yet Access can import the data in a few seconds. The resulting table of readings of average, minimum and maximum temperatures for each month for each station has more than one million rows. I have not experimented with adding indexes yet but, in spite of this, I can run queries that are not painfully slow.

Now that I have the data into an Access database, I hope to start analysing the data. I have produced a couple of charts for a single station but am yet to run any serious calculations. I have read of a similar project at:

A Quick and Dirty Analysis of GHCN Surface Temperature Data

The algorithm that caerbannog (the blogger) uses in his C++ program to smooth the data and calculate averages is fairly simple. Something similar should be possible (or even easy) using the MS Office tools.

Ultimately, my aim for this is to make this the basis of an ICT lesson or project. As caerbannog notes “Never in history has science been more accessible to the general public than it is now.” The quantities of data that can be accessed for free are as enormous as the power of the computers that are now cheaply available. I hope that my students will be inspired to look deeply into the issue and this will help develop their sense of empirical curiosity.

String Manipulation with the Decorator Pattern

Inspired by the Java program to sort and reverse a string at ICTCool.com, I decided to try to solve the problem using Java and the Decorator Pattern.

StringDecoratorDemo.tar.gz

My solution required considerably more lines of code than the code at ICT Cool. For a problem as simple as this, using the Decorator Pattern is probably overkill. However, the advantage of this pattern is that multiple decorators can be stacked up at run time in any order that we choose. Also, if we wanted to add more operations later, we simply add a new class, which is cleanly separate from the other operations.

I’ve written the program using NetBeans, which creates quite a few files other than the source files, which are in `src`. To run the program, `cd` to the `dist` directory and type ` java -jar StringDecoratorDemo.jar`.

Brain Boost

A couple of the blogs that I follow have pointed to the following article in the last couple of days.

http://discovermagazine.com/…

The article describes “Boskop man”, who (the authors claim) had a much bigger brain than that of modern humans and was correspondingly more intelligent.

Much of the “science” of the article is debunked here:

http://johnhawks.net/weblog/…

Obviously, brain size can only tell us so much about intelligence. Otherwise, school examinations would be unnecessary. Instead, we could simply dunk a pupil’s head in a bathtub to measure the volume of water displaced by the skull and, from this, the child’s intelligence.

However, I think that much of the article was intended to be read a speculation rather than fact. It’s quite fun (and possibly not impossible) to think about how someone more intelligent thinks.

What hope for us modern humans, with our puny brains, is there? As a teacher, I am always searching for ways to improve the workings of my own brain and those of my students. A bit of searching on the internet for ways to improve your intelligence quickly brings you to addicting games like this:

Exciting, but cautious, claims are made about this game. There are probably lots of such games that can improve your brain. Unfortunately, I cannot see this game being a great deal of help in a foreign language classroom (my own area). Perhaps such toys will have an important role to play in education.

Bingo Card Generator

I’ve put together a bingo card generator:

http://tefl.impey.info/TEFL_BingoGameHTMLPage

It’s a response to the Bingo card generator at

http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/materials/bingo/

I’ve been using the Teach-nology generator for a while for making bingo cards. My generator makes a few improvements to the way that the user operates. In particular, the user doesn’t have to hit ‘Shuffle’ and print for each student.

My kids tend to enjoy bingo. I let them play a game as a reward after a test. It’s more suited to less experienced learners, especially ones learning to match sounds to the words that they read. With more experienced learners, one can say the definition of the word, draw a picture on the board or do a charade instead of just saying the word.

New TEFL Site

I’ve put together a few pages for a TEFL materials site:

http://tefl.impey.info/

My aim for this site is to be able to produce materials for TEFL lessons more quickly. The first page that I’ve put up generates materials for a missing information game:

http://tefl.impey.info/TEFL_FindTheWordsInCommonGameHTMLPage

I’ve been playing this game for a few weeks in the classroom, but I have grown tired of writing out the cards using MS Word.

As always, I’ve written the site using the Haddock CMS. It’s the first site to make use of the Sky theme plug-in:

The aim of theme plug-ins is to be able to make giving a style to a site simply a case of checking out a plug-in and then getting the HTML page class to extend a class in the theme plug-in directory.

It’s also the first site to make use of the new “Site Texts” plug-in:

This separates all texts from the code of the project. The texts are saved in files in a separate folder to the project-specific code. At the moment they need to be created and edited by hand, but a web interface in the admin section may follow.

Boxing Day with my co-workers in Gangnam

Some pictures of the Boxing Day lunch with my co-workers in Gangnam.

Makino Chaya is a really great restaurant that I would recommend to all (except those unfortunate enough to be vegetarians).